# C 排序算法

## 实例

#include <stdio.h> void bubble_sort(int arr[], int len) { int i, j, temp; for (i = 0; i < len - 1; i++) for (j = 0; j < len - 1 - i; j++) if (arr[j] > arr[j + 1]) { temp = arr[j]; arr[j] = arr[j + 1]; arr[j + 1] = temp; } } int main() { int arr[] = { 22, 34, 3, 32, 82, 55, 89, 50, 37, 5, 64, 35, 9, 70 }; int len = (int) sizeof(arr) / sizeof(*arr); bubble_sort(arr, len); int i; for (i = 0; i < len; i++) printf("%d ", arr[i]); return 0; }

## 实例

void swap(int *a,int *b) //交換兩個變數 { int temp = *a; *a = *b; *b = temp; } void selection_sort(int arr[], int len) { int i,j; for (i = 0 ; i < len - 1 ; i++) { int min = i; for (j = i + 1; j < len; j++) //走訪未排序的元素 if (arr[j] < arr[min]) //找到目前最小值 min = j; //紀錄最小值 swap(&arr[min], &arr[i]); //做交換 } }

## 实例

void insertion_sort(int arr[], int len){ int i,j,temp; for (i=1;i<len;i++){ temp = arr[i]; for (j=i;j>0 && arr[j-1]>temp;j--) arr[j] = arr[j-1]; arr[j] = temp; } }

### 希尔排序

• 插入排序在对几乎已经排好序的数据操作时，效率高，即可以达到线性排序的效率
• 但插入排序一般来说是低效的，因为插入排序每次只能将数据移动一位

## 实例

void shell_sort(int arr[], int len) { int gap, i, j; int temp; for (gap = len >> 1; gap > 0; gap = gap >> 1) for (i = gap; i < len; i++) { temp = arr[i]; for (j = i - gap; j >= 0 && arr[j] > temp; j -= gap) arr[j + gap] = arr[j]; arr[j + gap] = temp; } }

## 迭代法

int min(int x, int y) { return x < y ? x : y; } void merge_sort(int arr[], int len) { int* a = arr; int* b = (int*) malloc(len * sizeof(int)); int seg, start; for (seg = 1; seg < len; seg += seg) { for (start = 0; start < len; start += seg + seg) { int low = start, mid = min(start + seg, len), high = min(start + seg + seg, len); int k = low; int start1 = low, end1 = mid; int start2 = mid, end2 = high; while (start1 < end1 && start2 < end2) b[k++] = a[start1] < a[start2] ? a[start1++] : a[start2++]; while (start1 < end1) b[k++] = a[start1++]; while (start2 < end2) b[k++] = a[start2++]; } int* temp = a; a = b; b = temp; } if (a != arr) { int i; for (i = 0; i < len; i++) b[i] = a[i]; b = a; } free(b); }

## 递归法

void merge_sort_recursive(int arr[], int reg[], int start, int end) { if (start >= end) return; int len = end - start, mid = (len >> 1) + start; int start1 = start, end1 = mid; int start2 = mid + 1, end2 = end; merge_sort_recursive(arr, reg, start1, end1); merge_sort_recursive(arr, reg, start2, end2); int k = start; while (start1 <= end1 && start2 <= end2) reg[k++] = arr[start1] < arr[start2] ? arr[start1++] : arr[start2++]; while (start1 <= end1) reg[k++] = arr[start1++]; while (start2 <= end2) reg[k++] = arr[start2++]; for (k = start; k <= end; k++) arr[k] = reg[k]; } void merge_sort(int arr[], const int len) { int reg[len]; merge_sort_recursive(arr, reg, 0, len - 1); }

## 迭代法

typedef struct _Range { int start, end; } Range; Range new_Range(int s, int e) { Range r; r.start = s; r.end = e; return r; } void swap(int *x, int *y) { int t = *x; *x = *y; *y = t; } void quick_sort(int arr[], const int len) { if (len <= 0) return; // 避免len等於負值時引發段錯誤（Segment Fault） // r[]模擬列表,p為數量,r[p++]為push,r[--p]為pop且取得元素 Range r[len]; int p = 0; r[p++] = new_Range(0, len - 1); while (p) { Range range = r[--p]; if (range.start >= range.end) continue; int mid = arr[(range.start + range.end) / 2]; // 選取中間點為基準點 int left = range.start, right = range.end; do { while (arr[left] < mid) ++left; // 檢測基準點左側是否符合要求 while (arr[right] > mid) --right; //檢測基準點右側是否符合要求 if (left <= right) { swap(&arr[left],&arr[right]); left++;right--; // 移動指針以繼續 } } while (left <= right); if (range.start < right) r[p++] = new_Range(range.start, right); if (range.end > left) r[p++] = new_Range(left, range.end); } }

## 递归法

void swap(int *x, int *y) { int t = *x; *x = *y; *y = t; } void quick_sort_recursive(int arr[], int start, int end) { if (start >= end) return; int mid = arr[end]; int left = start, right = end - 1; while (left < right) { while (arr[left] < mid && left < right) left++; while (arr[right] >= mid && left < right) right--; swap(&arr[left], &arr[right]); } if (arr[left] >= arr[end]) swap(&arr[left], &arr[end]); else left++; if (left) quick_sort_recursive(arr, start, left - 1); quick_sort_recursive(arr, left + 1, end); } void quick_sort(int arr[], int len) { quick_sort_recursive(arr, 0, len - 1); }