在java中 你知道String对"+"做了什么吗

相关学习推荐:java基础教程

下面有段简单的代码

public class StringPlusTest{
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        String s1 = "aaa";
        String s2 = "bbb";
        String s = "ccc" +s1 + s2 +"ddd";
    }}

使用 javap -c .StringPlusTest.class反编译一下,得到

Compiled from "StringPlusTest.java"public class com.epoint.codetuning.test.StringPlusTest {
  public com.epoint.codetuning.test.StringPlusTest();
    Code:
       0: aload_0       1: invokespecial #1                  // Method java/lang/Object."<init>":()V
       4: return

  public static void main(java.lang.String[]);
    Code:
       0: ldc           #2                  // String aaa
       2: astore_1       3: ldc           #3                  // String bbb
       5: astore_2       6: new           #4                  // class java/lang/StringBuilder
       9: dup      10: invokespecial #5                  // Method java/lang/StringBuilder."<init>":()V
      13: ldc           #6                  // String ccc
      15: invokevirtual #7                  // Method java/lang/StringBuilder.append:(Ljava/lang/String;)Ljava/lang/StringBuilder;
      18: aload_1      19: invokevirtual #7                  // Method java/lang/StringBuilder.append:(Ljava/lang/String;)Ljava/lang/StringBuilder;
      22: aload_2      23: invokevirtual #7                  // Method java/lang/StringBuilder.append:(Ljava/lang/String;)Ljava/lang/StringBuilder;
      26: ldc           #8                  // String ddd
      28: invokevirtual #7                  // Method java/lang/StringBuilder.append:(Ljava/lang/String;)Ljava/lang/StringBuilder;
      31: invokevirtual #9                  // Method java/lang/StringBuilder.toString:()Ljava/lang/String;
      34: astore_3      35: return}

其中,

ldc 把常量池中的项压入栈
astore_1 将引用类型或returnAddress类型值存入局部变量1
astore_2 将引用类型或returnAddress类型值存入局部变量2
new 创建一个新对象
dup 复制栈顶部一个字长内容
invokespecial 根据编译时类型来调用实例方法
aload_1 从局部变量1中装载引用类型值
aload_2 从局部变量2中装载引用类型值
astore_3 将引用类型或returnAddress类型值存入局部变量3

更多指令见JVM指令手册

对于Java来说,这段代码原理上应该是:

public class StringPlusTest{
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        String s1 = "aaa";
        String s2 = "bbb";
        String s = new StringBuilder().append("ccc").append(s1).append(s2).append("ddd").toString();
    }}

由此可见,Java中使用“+”拼接字符串的实现原理是通过建立临时StringBuilder对象调用append和toString方法实现。

对上面代码做一些修改

public class StringPlusTest{
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        String s1 = "aaa";
        String s2 = null;
        String s = "ccc" +s1 + s2 +"ddd";
        System.out.println(s);
    }}

结果是什么?

运行可以得到如下:

cccaaanullddd

查看StringBuilder源码

@Overridepublic StringBuilder append(String str) {
    super.append(str);
    return this;}

该方法调用继承父类AbstractStringBuilder的方法,再去父类中查看

 public AbstractStringBuilder append(String str) {
        if (str == null)
            return appendNull();
        int len = str.length();
        ensureCapacityInternal(count + len);
        str.getChars(0, len, value, count);
        count += len;
        return this;}private AbstractStringBuilder appendNull() {
    int c = count;
    ensureCapacityInternal(c + 4);
    final char[] value = this.value;
    value[c++] = 'n';
    value[c++] = 'u';
    value[c++] = 'l';
    value[c++] = 'l';
    count = c;
    return this;}

appendNull方法简单来说就是容量+4,追加null字符串。

所以结果为”cccaaanullddd”。

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