scrapy利用selenium爬取豆瓣阅读的全步骤

首先创建scrapy项目

命令:scrapy startproject douban_read

创建spider

命令:scrapy genspider douban_spider url

网址:https://read.douban.com/charts

关键注释代码中有,若有不足,请多指教

scrapy项目目录结构如下

douban_spider.py文件代码

爬虫文件

import scrapy
import re, json

from ..items import DoubanReadItem


class DoubanSpiderSpider(scrapy.Spider):
 name = "douban_spider"
 # allowed_domains = ["www"]
 start_urls = ["https://read.douban.com/charts"]

 def parse(self, response):
 # print(response.text)
 # 获取图书分类的url
 type_urls = response.xpath("//div[@class="rankings-nav"]/a[position()>1]/@href").extract()
 # print(type_urls)
 for type_url in type_urls:
  # /charts?type=unfinished_column&index=featured&dcs=charts&dcm=charts-nav
  part_param = re.search(r"charts?(.*?)&dcs", type_url).group(1)
  # https://read.douban.com/j/index//charts?type=intermediate_finalized&index=science_fiction&verbose=1
  ajax_url = "https://read.douban.com/j/index//charts?{}&verbose=1".format(part_param)
  yield scrapy.Request(ajax_url, callback=self.parse_ajax, encoding="utf-8", meta={"request_type": "ajax"})

 def parse_ajax(self, response):

 # print(response.text)
 # 获取分类中图书的json数据
 json_data = json.loads(response.text)
 for data in json_data["list"]:
  item = DoubanReadItem()
  item["book_id"] = data["works"]["id"]
  item["book_url"] = data["works"]["url"]
  item["book_title"] = data["works"]["title"]
  item["book_author"] = data["works"]["author"]
  item["book_cover_image"] = data["works"]["cover"]
  item["book_abstract"] = data["works"]["abstract"]
  item["book_wordCount"] = data["works"]["wordCount"]
  item["book_kinds"] = data["works"]["kinds"]
  # 把item yield给Itempipeline
  yield item

item.py文件代码

项目的目标文件

# Define here the models for your scraped items
#
# See documentation in:
# https://docs.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/items.html

import scrapy


class DoubanReadItem(scrapy.Item):
 # define the fields for your item here like:
 book_id = scrapy.Field()
 book_url = scrapy.Field()
 book_title = scrapy.Field()
 book_author = scrapy.Field()
 book_cover_image = scrapy.Field()
 book_abstract = scrapy.Field()
 book_wordCount = scrapy.Field()
 book_kinds = scrapy.Field()


my_download_middle.py文件代码

所有request都会经过下载中间件,可以通过定制中间件,来完成设置代理,动态设置请求头,自定义下载等操作

import random
import time
from selenium import webdriver
from selenium.webdriver.common.desired_capabilities import DesiredCapabilities
from scrapy.http.response.html import HtmlResponse


class MymiddleWares(object):
 def __init__(self):
 # 请求头列表
 self.USER_AGENT_LIST = [
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.1 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/22.0.1207.1 Safari/537.1",
  "Mozilla/5.0 (X11; CrOS i686 2268.111.0) AppleWebKit/536.11 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/20.0.1132.57 Safari/536.11",
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/536.6 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/20.0.1092.0 Safari/536.6",
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.2) AppleWebKit/536.6 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/20.0.1090.0 Safari/536.6",
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.2; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.1 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.77.34.5 Safari/537.1",
  "Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64) AppleWebKit/536.5 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1084.9 Safari/536.5",
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.0) AppleWebKit/536.5 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1084.36 Safari/536.5",
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1063.0 Safari/536.3",
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 5.1) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1063.0 Safari/536.3",
  "Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 7.0; Windows NT 5.1; Trident/4.0; SE 2.X MetaSr 1.0; SE 2.X MetaSr 1.0; .NET CLR 2.0.50727; SE 2.X MetaSr 1.0)",
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.2) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1062.0 Safari/536.3",
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1062.0 Safari/536.3",
  "Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 7.0; Windows NT 5.1; 360SE)",
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1061.1 Safari/536.3",
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1061.1 Safari/536.3",
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.2) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1061.0 Safari/536.3",
  "Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64) AppleWebKit/535.24 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1055.1 Safari/535.24",
  "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.2; WOW64) AppleWebKit/535.24 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1055.1 Safari/535.24"
 ]

 def process_request(self, request, spider):
 """
 下载中间件处理requests的方法
 :param request:马上要被下载器下载request
 :param spider:
 :return:
 """
 # 在spider中设置了meta的request_type的值为ajax meta参数会贯穿整个scrapy
 request_type = request.meta.get("request_type")
 # 如果不是ajax请求就需要通过selenium来自定义下载request
 if not request_type:
  print("in middler")
  # 1、创建driver
  driver = webdriver.Chrome()
  # 2、请求url
  driver.get(request.url)
  # 3、等待
  # driver.implicitly_wait(20)
  time.sleep(3)
  # 4、获取页面内容
  html_str = driver.page_source
  # 直接返回HtmlResponse给spider解析 下载器就不会下载这个request 达到自定义下载的目的
  return HtmlResponse(url=request.url, body=html_str, request=request, encoding="utf-8")

 else:
  # 如果是ajax请求就需要通过scrapy下载器来下载request
  # ajax请求直接返回json数据不适合上面的selenium下载
  ua = random.choice(self.USER_AGENT_LIST)
  # 设置请求头
  if ua:
  request.headers.setdefault("User-Agent", ua)
  request.headers.setdefault("X-Requested-With", "XMLHttpRequest")

pipeline.py文件代码

项目的管道文件

import pymongo
from itemadapter import ItemAdapter


class MongoPipeline:
 # 存储集合名字
 collection_name = "book"

 def __init__(self, mongo_uri, mongo_db):
 self.mongo_uri = mongo_uri
 self.mongo_db = mongo_db

 @classmethod
 def from_crawler(cls, crawler):
 return cls(
  mongo_uri=crawler.settings.get("MONGO_URI"),
  mongo_db=crawler.settings.get("MONGO_DATABASE", "items")
 )

 def open_spider(self, spider):
 """
 当spider启动的时候调用
 :param spider:
 :return:
 """
 self.client = pymongo.MongoClient(self.mongo_uri)
 self.db = self.client[self.mongo_db]

 def close_spider(self, spider):
 self.client.close()

 # 保存到mongo的douban_read数据库下的book集合中
 def process_item(self, item, spider):
 self.db[self.collection_name].update({"book_id": item["book_id"]}, {"$set": dict(item)}, True)
 # True:有则修改 无则新增
 print(item)
 return item

settings.py文件代码

配置信息

 # Scrapy settings for douban_read project
#
# For simplicity, this file contains only settings considered important or
# commonly used. You can find more settings consulting the documentation:
#
# https://docs.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/settings.html
# https://docs.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/downloader-middleware.html
# https://docs.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/spider-middleware.html

BOT_NAME = "douban_read"

SPIDER_MODULES = ["douban_read.spiders"]
NEWSPIDER_MODULE = "douban_read.spiders"


# Crawl responsibly by identifying yourself (and your website) on the user-agent
#USER_AGENT = "douban_read (+http://www.yourdomain.com)"

# Obey robots.txt rules
# robot协议
ROBOTSTXT_OBEY = False

# Configure maximum concurrent requests performed by Scrapy (default: 16)
#CONCURRENT_REQUESTS = 32

# Configure a delay for requests for the same website (default: 0)
# See https://docs.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/settings.html#download-delay
# See also autothrottle settings and docs
#DOWNLOAD_DELAY = 3
# The download delay setting will honor only one of:
#CONCURRENT_REQUESTS_PER_DOMAIN = 16
#CONCURRENT_REQUESTS_PER_IP = 16

# Disable cookies (enabled by default)
#COOKIES_ENABLED = False

# Disable Telnet Console (enabled by default)
#TELNETCONSOLE_ENABLED = False

# Override the default request headers:
# 默认请求头
DEFAULT_REQUEST_HEADERS = {
 "Accept": "text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8",
 "Accept-Language": "en",
 "User-Agent": "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/85.0.4183.102 Safari/537.36",

}

# Enable or disable spider middlewares
# See https://docs.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/spider-middleware.html
#SPIDER_MIDDLEWARES = {
# "douban_read.middlewares.DoubanReadSpiderMiddleware": 543,
#}

# Enable or disable downloader middlewares
# See https://docs.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/downloader-middleware.html
# 配置下载器中间件
DOWNLOADER_MIDDLEWARES = {
 "douban_read.my_download_middle.MymiddleWares": 543,
}

# Enable or disable extensions
# See https://docs.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/extensions.html
#EXTENSIONS = {
# "scrapy.extensions.telnet.TelnetConsole": None,
#}

# Configure item pipelines
# See https://docs.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/item-pipeline.html
# 配置ITEM_PIPELINES
ITEM_PIPELINES = {
 "douban_read.pipelines.MongoPipeline": 300,
}

# Enable and configure the AutoThrottle extension (disabled by default)
# See https://docs.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/autothrottle.html
#AUTOTHROTTLE_ENABLED = True
# The initial download delay
#AUTOTHROTTLE_START_DELAY = 5
# The maximum download delay to be set in case of high latencies
#AUTOTHROTTLE_MAX_DELAY = 60
# The average number of requests Scrapy should be sending in parallel to
# each remote server
#AUTOTHROTTLE_TARGET_CONCURRENCY = 1.0
# Enable showing throttling stats for every response received:
#AUTOTHROTTLE_DEBUG = False

# Enable and configure HTTP caching (disabled by default)
# See https://docs.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/downloader-middleware.html#httpcache-middleware-settings
#HTTPCACHE_ENABLED = True
#HTTPCACHE_EXPIRATION_SECS = 0
#HTTPCACHE_DIR = "httpcache"
#HTTPCACHE_IGNORE_HTTP_CODES = []
#HTTPCACHE_STORAGE = "scrapy.extensions.httpcache.FilesystemCacheStorage"

# 配置mongo
MONGO_URI = "localhost"
# 创建数据库:douban_read
MONGO_DATABASE = "douban_read"

最后启动该项目即可

scrapy crawl douban_spider

数据就保存到mongo数据库了

总结

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原文链接:https://blog.csdn.net/qq_45665594/article/details/108674079