python Paramiko使用示例

Paramiko 是由 Python 语言编写的一个扩展模块,提供了基于 SSHv2 协议 (包括客户端和服务端)的多种功能实现。通常被用来远程控制类 UNIX 系统。

Paramiko 可以直接使用 pip 命令安装:

$ pip install paramiko

此处不作过多介绍,参考后文中的代码示例。

远程执行 Linux 命令

代码如下:

import paramiko

# 初始化 SSH 客户端,通过用户名密码连接至远程服务器
client = paramiko.SSHClient()
client.set_missing_host_key_policy(paramiko.AutoAddPolicy)
client.connect(hostname="remoteserver_ip", username="username", password="password")

# 通过 RSA 秘钥验证的方式连接至远程 SSH 服务
# private_key = paramiko.RSAKey.from_private_key_file("~/.ssh/id_rsa")
# client.connect(hostname="remoteserver_ip", username="username", pkey=private_key)

# 远程执行 df -h 命令并打印输出
stdin, stdout, stderr = client.exec_command("df -h")
print(stdout.read().decode("utf-8"))

client.close()

运行效果如下:

SFTP 文件传输

示例代码如下:

import paramiko

transport = paramiko.Transport(("hostname_or_ip", port))

# 通过用户名密码完成验证建立连接
transport.connect(username="username", password="password")

# 通过 RSA 私钥文件完成验证建立连接
# private_key = paramiko.RSAKey.from_private_key_file("/path/to/private_key_file")
# transport.connect(username="username", pkey=private_key)

sftp = paramiko.SFTPClient.from_transport(transport)

localpath = "localfile"
remotepath = "remotefile_fullpath"
sftp.put(localpath, remotepath)
print("Successfully uploaded")

transport.close()

综合示例

代码如下(文件名 ssh_connection.py ):

import paramiko
import getpass
import os


class SSHConnection():

  def __init__(self, user, host, port=22, password=""):
    self.username = user
    self.host = host
    self.port = port
    self.password = password
    self.keyfile = self.get_keyfile()

  def get_keyfile(self, path=os.getcwd()):
    default_keyfile = os.path.join(
      os.environ["HOME"], ".ssh", "id_rsa")

    if "id_rsa" in os.listdir(path):
      keyfile = os.path.join(path, "id_rsa")
    elif os.path.isfile(default_keyfile):
      keyfile = default_keyfile
    else:
      keyfile = ""

    return keyfile

  def connect(self):
    transport = paramiko.Transport((self.host, self.port))

    if self.password:
      transport.connect(username=self.username, password=self.password)
    elif self.keyfile:
      transport.connect(
        username=self.username,
        pkey=paramiko.RSAKey.from_private_key_file(self.keyfile))
    else:
      password = getpass.getpass(
        "Password for %s@%s: " % (self.username, self.host))
      transport.connect(username=self.username, password=password)

    self._transport = transport

    print("Connected to %s as %s" % (self.host, self.username))

  def close(self):
    self._transport.close()

  def run_cmd(self, command):
    ssh = paramiko.SSHClient()
    ssh._transport = self._transport

    stdin, stdout, stderr = ssh.exec_command(command)
    res = stdout.read().decode("utf-8")
    error = stderr.read().decode("utf-8")

    if error.strip():
      return error
    else:
      return res

  def trans_file(self, localpath, remotepath, method=""):
    sftp = paramiko.SFTPClient.from_transport(self._transport)
    if method == "put":
      sftp.put(localpath, remotepath)
      print("File %s has uploaded to %s" % (localpath, remotepath))
    elif method == "get":
      sftp.get(remotepath, localpath)
      print("File %s has saved as %s" % (remotepath, localpath))
    else:
      print("usage: trans_file(localpath, remotepath, method="get/put"")

  def __del__(self):
    self.close()

测试结果如下:

(python3) D:Programpythondevops>python
Python 3.7.2 (default, Jan 2 2019, 17:07:39) [MSC v.1915 64 bit (AMD64)] :: Anaconda, Inc. on win32
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>> from ssh_connection import SSHConnection
>>> client = SSHConnection("starky","127.0.0.1")
>>> client.connect()
Connected to 127.0.0.1 as starky
>>> client.run_cmd("uname -a")
"Linux server1 5.0.0-20-generic #21-Ubuntu SMP Mon Jun 24 09:32:09 UTC 2019 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux "
>>> client.trans_file("id_rsa.pub", "/home/starky/id_rsa.pub", method="put")
File id_rsa.pub has uploaded to /home/starky/id_rsa.pub
>>> client.run_cmd("ls -l /home/starky/id_rsa.pub")
"-rw-rw-r-- 1 starky starky 410 7月 20 15:01 /home/starky/id_rsa.pub "
>>> exit()

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原文链接:https://rollingstarky.github.io/2019/07/20/paramiko-examples/?utm_source=tuicool&utm_medium=referral