关于Java8中map()和flatMap()的一些事

关于Java8中map()和flatMap()的一些事

两个方法的背景

这两个方法看起来做着同样的事情,但实际上又有些不一样。看源码部分是这样的

package java.util.stream;

map()方法

/**
* @param <R> The element type of the new stream
* @param mapper a <a href="package-summary.html#NonInterference" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" >non-interfering</a>,
* <a href="package-summary.html#Statelessness" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" >stateless</a>
*    function to apply to each element
* @return the new stream
*/
 <R> Stream<R> map(Function<? super T, ? extends R> mapper);

flatMap()方法

/**
* @param <R> The element type of the new stream
* @param mapper a <a href="package-summary.html#NonInterference" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" >non-interfering</a>,
* <a href="package-summary.html#Statelessness" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" >stateless</a>
* function to apply to each element which produces a stream
* of new values
* @return the new stream
*/
<R> Stream<R> flatMap(Function<? super T, ? extends Stream<? extends R>> mapper);

Stream map() Method

看源码做推测,map是一种中间操作,返回的是Stream

代码测试

map()方法

public static void main(String[] args) {
  System.out.println("Output with simple list");
  List<String> vowels = Arrays.asList("A", "E", "I", "O", "U");
  vowels.stream().map(vowel -> vowel.toLowerCase())
    .forEach(value -> System.out.println(value));
  List<String> haiList = new ArrayList<>();
  haiList.add("hello");
  haiList.add("hai");
  haiList.add("hehe");
  haiList.add("hi");
  System.out.println("Output with nested List of List<String>");
  List<String> welcomeList = new ArrayList<>();
  welcomeList.add("You got it");
  welcomeList.add("Don"t mention it");
  welcomeList.add("No worries.");
  welcomeList.add("Not a problem");
  List<List<String>> nestedList = Arrays.asList(haiList, welcomeList);
  nestedList.stream().map(list -> {
   return list.stream().map(value -> value.toUpperCase());
  }).forEach(value -> System.out.println(value));
 }

Output

Output with simple list
a
e
i
o
u
Output with nested List of List<String>
java.util.stream.ReferencePipeline$3@3b9a45b3
java.util.stream.ReferencePipeline$3@7699a589

flatMap()方法

public static void main(String[] args) {
  List<String> haiList = new ArrayList<>();
  haiList.add("hello");
  haiList.add("hai");
  haiList.add("hehe");
  haiList.add("hi");
  System.out.println("Output with nested List of List<String>");
  List<String> welcomeList = new ArrayList<>();
  welcomeList.add("You got it");
  welcomeList.add("Don"t mention it");
  welcomeList.add("No worries.");
  welcomeList.add("Not a problem");
  List<List<String>> nestedList = Arrays.asList(haiList, welcomeList);
  nestedList.stream().flatMap(
    list -> list.stream())
    .map(value -> value.toUpperCase())
    .forEach(value -> System.out.println(value));
 }

Output

Output with nested List of List<String>
HELLO
HAI
HEHE
HI
YOU GOT IT
DON"T MENTION IT
NO WORRIES.
NOT A PROBLEM

Java 8 map() vs flatMap()

  • map()和flatMap()方法都可以应用于Stream <T>和Optional <T>。 并且都返回Stream <R>或Optional <U>。
  • 区别在于,映射操作为每个输入值生成一个输出值,而flatMap操作为每个输入值生成任意数量(零个或多个)的值。 在flatMap()中,每个输入始终是一个集合,可以是List或Set或Map。 映射操作采用一个函数,该函数将为输入流中的每个值调用,并生成一个结果值,该结果值将发送到输出流。 flatMap操作采用的功能在概念上想消耗一个值并产生任意数量的值。 但是,在Java中,方法返回任意数量的值很麻烦,因为方法只能返回零或一个值。

代码

 public static void main(String[] args) {

  List<Stream> together = Stream.of(Arrays.asList(1, 2), Arrays.asList(3, 4)) // Stream of List<Integer>
    .map(List::stream)
    .collect(Collectors.toList());

  System.out.println("Output with map() -> "+together);


  List<Integer> togetherFlatMap = Stream.of(Arrays.asList(1, 2), Arrays.asList(3, 4)) // Stream of List<Integer>
    .flatMap(List::stream)
    .map(integer -> integer + 1)
    .collect(Collectors.toList());

  System.out.println("Output with flatMap() -> "+togetherFlatMap);
 }

Output

Output with map() -> [java.util.stream.ReferencePipeline$Head@16b98e56, java.util.stream.ReferencePipeline$Head@7ef20235]
Output with flatMap() -> [2, 3, 4, 5]

总结

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原文链接:https://segmentfault.com/a/1190000037584886