Spring远程调用HttpClient/RestTemplate的方法

一、HttpClient

两个系统间如何互相访问?两个tomcat上的项目如何互相访问?

       采用HttpClient实现跨系统的接口调用。

介绍:

官网:http://hc.apache.org/index.html

现在也叫:HttpComponents

HttpClient可以发送get、post、put、delete、...等请求

使用:

导入坐标

<dependency>
  <groupId>org.apache.httpcomponents</groupId>
  <artifactId>httpclient</artifactId>
  <version>4.4</version>
</dependency>
//1、使用HttpClient发起Get请求
public class DoGET {
 
  public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
    // 创建Httpclient对象,相当于打开了浏览器
    CloseableHttpClient httpclient = HttpClients.createDefault();
 
    // 创建HttpGet请求,相当于在浏览器输入地址
    HttpGet httpGet = new HttpGet("http://www.baidu.com/");
 
    CloseableHttpResponse response = null;
    try {
      // 执行请求,相当于敲完地址后按下回车。获取响应
      response = httpclient.execute(httpGet);
      // 判断返回状态是否为200
      if (response.getStatusLine().getStatusCode() == 200) {
        // 解析响应,获取数据
        String content = EntityUtils.toString(response.getEntity(), "UTF-8");
        System.out.println(content);
      }
    } finally {
      if (response != null) {
        // 关闭资源
        response.close();
      }
      // 关闭浏览器
      httpclient.close();
    }
 
  }
}
 
 
//2、使用HttpClient发起带参数的Get请求
public class DoGETParam {
 
  public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
    // 创建Httpclient对象
    CloseableHttpClient httpclient = HttpClients.createDefault();
    // 创建URI对象,并且设置请求参数
    URI uri = new URIBuilder("http://www.baidu.com/s").setParameter("wd", "java").build();
    
    // 创建http GET请求
    HttpGet httpGet = new HttpGet(uri);
 
    // HttpGet get = new HttpGet("http://www.baidu.com/s?wd=java");
    
    CloseableHttpResponse response = null;
    try {
      // 执行请求
      response = httpclient.execute(httpGet);
      // 判断返回状态是否为200
      if (response.getStatusLine().getStatusCode() == 200) {
        // 解析响应数据
        String content = EntityUtils.toString(response.getEntity(), "UTF-8");
        System.out.println(content);
      }
    } finally {
      if (response != null) {
        response.close();
      }
      httpclient.close();
    }
  }
}
 
 
//3、使用HttpClient发起POST请求
public class DoPOST {
  public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
    // 创建Httpclient对象
    CloseableHttpClient httpclient = HttpClients.createDefault();
    // 创建http POST请求
    HttpPost httpPost = new HttpPost("http://www.oschina.net/");
    // 把自己伪装成浏览器。否则开源中国会拦截访问
    httpPost.setHeader("User-Agent", "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/56.0.2924.87 Safari/537.36");
 
    CloseableHttpResponse response = null;
    try {
      // 执行请求
      response = httpclient.execute(httpPost);
      // 判断返回状态是否为200
      if (response.getStatusLine().getStatusCode() == 200) {
        // 解析响应数据
        String content = EntityUtils.toString(response.getEntity(), "UTF-8");
        System.out.println(content);
      }
    } finally {
      if (response != null) {
        response.close();
      }
      // 关闭浏览器
      httpclient.close();
    }
 
  }
}
 
 
//4、使用HttpClient发起带有参数的POST请求
public class DoPOSTParam {
 
  public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
    // 创建Httpclient对象
    CloseableHttpClient httpclient = HttpClients.createDefault();
    // 创建http POST请求,访问开源中国
    HttpPost httpPost = new HttpPost("http://www.oschina.net/search");
 
    // 根据开源中国的请求需要,设置post请求参数
    List<NameValuePair> parameters = new ArrayList<NameValuePair>(0);
    parameters.add(new BasicNameValuePair("scope", "project"));
    parameters.add(new BasicNameValuePair("q", "java"));
    parameters.add(new BasicNameValuePair("fromerr", "8bDnUWwC"));
    // 构造一个form表单式的实体
    UrlEncodedFormEntity formEntity = new UrlEncodedFormEntity(parameters);
    // 将请求实体设置到httpPost对象中
    httpPost.setEntity(formEntity);
 
    CloseableHttpResponse response = null;
    try {
      // 执行请求
      response = httpclient.execute(httpPost);
      // 判断返回状态是否为200
      if (response.getStatusLine().getStatusCode() == 200) {
        // 解析响应体
        String content = EntityUtils.toString(response.getEntity(), "UTF-8");
        System.out.println(content);
      }
    } finally {
      if (response != null) {
        response.close();
      }
      // 关闭浏览器
      httpclient.close();
    }
  }
}

 二、RestTemplate

RestTemplate是Spring提供的用于访问Rest服务的客户端,RestTemplate提供了多种便捷访问远程Http服务的方法

HTTP开发是用apache的HttpClient开发,代码复杂,还得操心资源回收等。代码很复杂,冗余代码多。

导入坐标

<dependency>
  <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
  <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
</dependency>

创建RestTemplate对象

@Configuration//加上这个注解作用,可以被Spring扫描
public class RestTemplateConfig {
  /**
   * 创建RestTemplate对象,将RestTemplate对象的生命周期的管理交给Spring
   * @return
   */
  @Bean
  public RestTemplate restTemplate(){
    RestTemplate restTemplate = new RestTemplate();
    //主要解决中文乱码
    restTemplate.getMessageConverters().set(1, new StringHttpMessageConverter(StandardCharsets.UTF_8));
    return restTemplate;
  }
}

RestTempController

import org.springframework.http.ResponseEntity;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Controller;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.GetMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMapping;
import org.springframework.web.client.RestTemplate;
 
import javax.annotation.Resource;
 
@RestController
@RequestMapping("/consumer")
public class ConsumerController {
  // 从Spring的容器中获取restTemplate
  @Resource
  private RestTemplate restTemplate;
 
  /**
   * 通过Get请求,保存数据
   */
  @GetMapping("/{id}")
  public ResponseEntity<String> findById(@PathVariable Integer id){
    //发起远程请求:通过RestTemplate发起get请求
    ResponseEntity<String> entity = restTemplate.getForEntity("http://localhost:8090/goods2/1", String.class);
    System.out.println("entity.getStatusCode():"+entity.getStatusCode());
    System.out.println(entity.getBody());
    return entity;
  }
 
  /**
   * 通过Post请求,保存数据
   */
  @PostMapping
  public ResponseEntity<String> saveGoods(@RequestBody Goods goods){
    //通过RestTemplate发起远程请求
    /**
     * 第一个参数:远程地址URI
     * 第二个参数:数据
     * 第三个参数:返回值类型
     */
    ResponseEntity<String> entity = restTemplate.postForEntity("http://localhost:8090/goods2", goods, String.class);
    System.out.println("entity.getStatusCode():"+entity.getStatusCode());
    System.out.println(entity.getBody());
    return entity;
  }
 
  @PutMapping
  public ResponseEntity<String> updateGoods(@RequestBody Goods goods){
    restTemplate.put("http://localhost:8090/goods2",goods);
    return new ResponseEntity<>("修改成功", HttpStatus.OK);
  }
 
  @DeleteMapping("/{id}")
  public ResponseEntity<String> deleteById(@PathVariable Integer id){
    restTemplate.delete("http://localhost:8090/goods2/"+id);
    return new ResponseEntity<>("删除成功", HttpStatus.OK);
  }
}

只用maven不用springboot框架时只需要导入依赖到pom文件

<dependency>
  <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
  <artifactId>spring-web</artifactId>
</dependency>

直接new RestTemplate()对象使用即可

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