Python爬虫库requests获取响应内容、响应状态码、响应头

Python爬虫库requests获取响应内容、响应状态码、响应头

首先在程序中引入Requests模块

import requests

一、获取不同类型的响应内容

在发送请求后,服务器会返回一个响应内容,而且requests通常会自动解码响应内容

1.文本响应内容

获取文本类型的响应内容

r = requests.get("https://www.baidu.com")
r.text # 通过文本的形式获取响应内容
"<!DOCTYPE html>
<!--STATUS OK--><html> <head><meta http-equiv=content-type content=text/html;charset=utf-8><meta http-equiv=X-UA-Compatible content=IE=Edge><meta content=always name=referrer><link rel=stylesheet type=text/css href=https://ss1.bdstatic.com/5eN1bjq8AAUYm2zgoY3K/r/www/cache/bdorz/baidu.min.css><title>çx99¾åo|ä¸x80ä¸x8bï¼x8cä½xa0å°±çx9f¥éx81x93</title></head> <body link=#0000cc> <div id=wrapper> <div id=head> <div class=head_wrapper> <div class=s_form> <div class=s_form_wrapper> <div id=lg> <img hidefocus=true src=//www.baidu.com/img/bd_logo1.png width=270 height=129> </div> <form id=form name=f action=//www.baidu.com/s class=fm> <input type=hidden name=bdorz_come value=1> <input type=hidden name=ie value=utf-8> <input type=hidden name=f value=8> <input type=hidden name=rsv_bp value=1> <input type=hidden name=rsv_idx value=1> <input type=hidden name=tn value=baidu><span class="bg s_ipt_wr"><input id=kw name=wd class=s_ipt value maxlength=255 autocomplete=off autofocus=autofocus></span><span class="bg s_btn_wr"><input type=submit id=su value=çx99¾åo|ä¸x80ä¸x8b class="bg s_btn" autofocus></span> </form> </div> </div> <div id=u1> <a href=http://news.baidu.com name=tj_trnews class=mnav>æx96°éx97»</a> <a href=https://www.hao123.com name=tj_trhao123 class=mnav>hao123</a> <a href=http://map.baidu.com name=tj_trmap class=mnav>åx9c°åx9b¾</a> <a href=http://v.baidu.com name=tj_trvideo class=mnav>è§x86é¢x91</a> <a href=http://tieba.baidu.com name=tj_trtieba class=mnav>è′′åx90§</a> <noscript> <a href=http://www.baidu.com/bdorz/login.gif?login&tpl=mn&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.baidu.com%2f%3fbdorz_come%3d1 name=tj_login class=lb>çx99»å½x95</a> </noscript> <script>document.write("<a href="http://www.baidu.com/bdorz/login.gif?login&tpl=mn&u="+ encodeURIComponent(window.location.href+ (window.location.search === " rel="external nofollow" " ? "?" : "&")+ "bdorz_come=1")+ "" name="tj_login" class="lb">çx99»å½x95</a>");
        </script> <a href=//www.baidu.com/more/ name=tj_briicon class=bri style="display: block;">æx9b′å¤x9aäo§åx93x81</a> </div> </div> </div> <div id=ftCon> <div id=ftConw> <p id=lh> <a href=http://home.baidu.com>åx853äox8eçx99¾åo|</a> <a href=http://ir.baidu.com>About Baidu</a> </p> <p id=cp>©2017 Baidu <a href=http://www.baidu.com/duty/>使çx94¨çx99¾åo|åx89x8då¿x85èˉ»</a>  <a href=http://jianyi.baidu.com/ class=cp-feedback>æx84x8fè§x81åx8fx8dé|x88</a> äo¬ICPèˉx81030173åx8f・  <img src=//www.baidu.com/img/gs.gif> </p> </div> </div> </div> </body> </html>
"

通过encoding来获取响应内容的编码以及修改编码

r.encoding
"ISO-8859-1"

2.二进制响应内容

r.content # 通过content获取的内容便是二进制类型的

3.JSON响应内容

r.json()

4.原始响应内容

r = requests.get("https://www.baidu.com",stream=True)
print(r.raw) # 就是urllib中的HTTPResponse对象
print(r.raw.read(10))
<requests.packages.urllib3.response.HTTPResponse object at 0x00000077940AEEF0>
b"x1fx8bx08x00x00x00x00x00x00x03"

二、响应状态码

获取响应状态码

r = requests.get("https://www.baidu.com")
r.status_code
200

判断响应状态码

r.status_code == requests.codes.ok
True

当发送一个错误请求时,抛出异常

bad_r = requests.get("http://httpbin.org/status/404")
print(bad_r.status_code)
bad_r.raise_for_status()
404



---------------------------------------------------------------------------

HTTPError                 Traceback (most recent call last)

<ipython-input-15-9b812f4c5860> in <module>()
   1 bad_r = requests.get("http://httpbin.org/status/404")
   2 print(bad_r.status_code)
----> 3 bad_r.raise_for_status()


D:Anaconda3libsite-packages
equestsmodels.py in raise_for_status(self)
  926 
  927     if http_error_msg:
--> 928       raise HTTPError(http_error_msg, response=self)
  929 
  930   def close(self):


HTTPError: 404 Client Error: NOT FOUND for url: http://httpbin.org/status/404

三、响应头

获取响应头

r = requests.get("https://www.baidu.com")
r.headers
{"Cache-Control": "private, no-cache, no-store, proxy-revalidate, no-transform", "Connection": "Keep-Alive", "Content-Encoding": "gzip", "Content-Type": "text/html", "Date": "Mon, 23 Jul 2018 09:04:12 GMT", "Last-Modified": "Mon, 23 Jan 2017 13:23:51 GMT", "Pragma": "no-cache", "Server": "bfe/1.0.8.18", "Set-Cookie": "BDORZ=27315; max-age=86400; domain=.baidu.com; path=/", "Transfer-Encoding": "chunked"}

获取响应头的具体字段

print(r.headers["Server"])
print(r.headers.get("Server"))
bfe/1.0.8.18
bfe/1.0.8.18

更多关于Python爬虫库requestsr的使用方法请查看下面的相关链接