Python爬虫抓取微博评论

Python爬虫抓取微博评论

第一步:引入库

import time
import base64
import rsa
import binascii
import requests
import re
from PIL import Image
import random
from urllib.parse import quote_plus
import http.cookiejar as cookielib
import csv
import os

 

第二步:一些全局变量的设置

comment_path = "comment"
agent = "mozilla/5.0 (windowS NT 10.0; win64; x64) appLewEbkit/537.36 (KHTML, likE gecko) chrome/71.0.3578.98 safari/537.36"
headers = {"User-Agent": agent}

 

第三步:创立目录作为存放数据的

if not os.path.exists(comment_path):
os.mkdir(comment_path)

 

第四步:登陆类的创立

class WeiboLogin(object):
"""
通过登录 weibo.com 然后跳转到 m.weibo.cn
"""

# 初始化数据
def __init__(self, user, password, cookie_path):
super(WeiboLogin, self).__init__()
self.user = user
self.password = password
self.session = requests.Session()
self.cookie_path = cookie_path
# LWPCookieJar是python中管理cookie的工具,可以将cookie保存到文件,或者在文件中读取cookie数据到程序
self.session.cookies = cookielib.LWPCookieJar(filename=self.cookie_path)
self.index_url = "http://weibo.com/login.php"
self.session.get(self.index_url, headers=headers, timeout=2)
self.postdata = dict()

def get_su(self):
"""
对 email 地址和手机号码 先 javascript 中 encodeURIComponent
对应 Python 3 中的是 urllib.parse.quote_plus
然后在 base64 加密后decode
"""
username_quote = quote_plus(self.user)
username_base64 = base64.b64encode(username_quote.encode("utf-8"))
return username_base64.decode("utf-8")

# 预登陆获得 servertime, nonce, pubkey, rsakv
def get_server_data(self, su):
"""与原来的相比,微博的登录从 v1.4.18 升级到了 v1.4.19
这里使用了 URL 拼接的方式,也可以用 Params 参数传递的方式
"""
pre_url = "http://login.sina.com.cn/sso/prelogin.php?entry=weibo&callback=sinaSSOController.preloginCallBack&su="
pre_url = pre_url + su + "&rsakt=mod&checkpin=1&client=ssologin.js(v1.4.19)&_="
pre_url = pre_url + str(int(time.time() * 1000))
pre_data_res = self.session.get(pre_url, headers=headers)
# print("*"*50)
# print(pre_data_res.text)
# print("*" * 50)
sever_data = eval(pre_data_res.content.decode("utf-8").replace("sinaSSOController.preloginCallBack", ""))

return sever_data

def get_password(self, servertime, nonce, pubkey):
"""对密码进行 RSA 的加密"""
rsaPublickey = int(pubkey, 16)
key = rsa.PublicKey(rsaPublickey, 65537) # 创建公钥
message = str(servertime) + "	" + str(nonce) + "
" + str(self.password) # 拼接明文js加密文件中得到
message = message.encode("utf-8")
passwd = rsa.encrypt(message, key) # 加密
passwd = binascii.b2a_hex(passwd) # 将加密信息转换为16进制。
return passwd

def get_cha(self, pcid):
"""获取验证码,并且用PIL打开,
1. 如果本机安装了图片查看软件,也可以用 os.subprocess 的打开验证码
2. 可以改写此函数接入打码平台。
"""
cha_url = "https://login.sina.com.cn/cgi/pin.php?r="
cha_url = cha_url + str(int(random.random() * 100000000)) + "&s=0&p="
cha_url = cha_url + pcid
cha_page = self.session.get(cha_url, headers=headers)
with open("cha.jpg", "wb") as f:
f.write(cha_page.content)
f.close()
try:
im = Image.open("cha.jpg")
im.show()
im.close()
except Exception as e:
print(u"请到当前目录下,找到验证码后输入")

def pre_login(self):
# su 是加密后的用户名
su = self.get_su()
sever_data = self.get_server_data(su)
servertime = sever_data["servertime"]
nonce = sever_data["nonce"]
rsakv = sever_data["rsakv"]
pubkey = sever_data["pubkey"]
showpin = sever_data["showpin"] # 这个参数的意义待探索
password_secret = self.get_password(servertime, nonce, pubkey)

self.postdata = {
"entry": "weibo",
"gateway": "1",
"from": "",
"savestate": "7",
"useticket": "1",
"pagerefer": "https://passport.weibo.com",
"vsnf": "1",
"su": su,
"service": "miniblog",
"servertime": servertime,
"nonce": nonce,
"pwencode": "rsa2",
"rsakv": rsakv,
"sp": password_secret,
"sr": "1366*768",
"encoding": "UTF-8",
"prelt": "115",
"cdult": "38",
"url": "http://weibo.com/ajaxlogin.php?framelogin=1&callback=parent.sinaSSOController.feedBackUrlCallBack",
"returntype": "TEXT" # 这里是 TEXT 和 META 选择,具体含义待探索
}
return sever_data

def login(self):
# 先不输入验证码登录测试
try:
sever_data = self.pre_login()
login_url = "https://login.sina.com.cn/sso/login.php?client=ssologin.js(v1.4.19)&_"
login_url = login_url + str(time.time() * 1000)
login_page = self.session.post(login_url, data=self.postdata, headers=headers)
ticket_js = login_page.json()
ticket = ticket_js["ticket"]
except Exception as e:
sever_data = self.pre_login()
login_url = "https://login.sina.com.cn/sso/login.php?client=ssologin.js(v1.4.19)&_"
login_url = login_url + str(time.time() * 1000)
pcid = sever_data["pcid"]
self.get_cha(pcid)
self.postdata["door"] = input(u"请输入验证码")
login_page = self.session.post(login_url, data=self.postdata, headers=headers)
ticket_js = login_page.json()
ticket = ticket_js["ticket"]
# 以下内容是 处理登录跳转链接
save_pa = r"==-(d+)-"
ssosavestate = int(re.findall(save_pa, ticket)[0]) + 3600 * 7
jump_ticket_params = {
"callback": "sinaSSOController.callbackLoginStatus",
"ticket": ticket,
"ssosavestate": str(ssosavestate),
"client": "ssologin.js(v1.4.19)",
"_": str(time.time() * 1000),
}
jump_url = "https://passport.weibo.com/wbsso/login"
jump_headers = {
"Host": "passport.weibo.com",
"Referer": "https://weibo.com/",
"User-Agent": headers["User-Agent"]
}
jump_login = self.session.get(jump_url, params=jump_ticket_params, headers=jump_headers)
uuid = jump_login.text

uuid_pa = r""uniqueid":"(.*?)""
uuid_res = re.findall(uuid_pa, uuid, re.S)[0]
web_weibo_url = "http://weibo.com/%s/profile?topnav=1&wvr=6&is_all=1" % uuid_res
weibo_page = self.session.get(web_weibo_url, headers=headers)

# print(weibo_page.content.decode("utf-8")

Mheaders = {
"Host": "login.sina.com.cn",
"User-Agent": agent
}

# m.weibo.cn 登录的 url 拼接
_rand = str(time.time())
mParams = {
"url": "https://m.weibo.cn/",
"_rand": _rand,
"gateway": "1",
"service": "sinawap",
"entry": "sinawap",
"useticket": "1",
"returntype": "META",
"sudaref": "",
"_client_version": "0.6.26",
}
murl = "https://login.sina.com.cn/sso/login.php"
mhtml = self.session.get(murl, params=mParams, headers=Mheaders)
mhtml.encoding = mhtml.apparent_encoding
mpa = r"replace((.*?));"
mres = re.findall(mpa, mhtml.text)

# 关键的跳转步骤,这里不出问题,基本就成功了。
Mheaders["Host"] = "passport.weibo.cn"
self.session.get(eval(mres[0]), headers=Mheaders)
mlogin = self.session.get(eval(mres[0]), headers=Mheaders)
# print(mlogin.status_code)
# 进过几次 页面跳转后,m.weibo.cn 登录成功,下次测试是否登录成功
Mheaders["Host"] = "m.weibo.cn"
Set_url = "https://m.weibo.cn"
pro = self.session.get(Set_url, headers=Mheaders)
pa_login = r"isLogin":true,"
login_res = re.findall(pa_login, pro.text)
# print(login_res)

# 可以通过 session.cookies 对 cookies 进行下一步相关操作
self.session.cookies.save()
# print("*"*50)
# print(self.cookie_path)

 

第五步:定义cookie的加载和信息的重定义

def get_cookies():
# 加载cookie
cookies = cookielib.LWPCookieJar("Cookie.txt")
cookies.load(ignore_discard=True, ignore_expires=True)
# 将cookie转换成字典
cookie_dict = requests.utils.dict_from_cookiejar(cookies)
return cookie_dict

def info_parser(data):
id,time,text = data["id"],data["created_at"],data["text"]
user = data["user"]
uid,username,following,followed,gender = 
user["id"],user["screen_name"],user["follow_count"],user["followers_count"],user["gender"]
return {
"wid":id,
"time":time,
"text":text,
"uid":uid,
"username":username,
"following":following,
"followed":followed,
"gender":gender
}

 

第六步:开始爬

def start_crawl(cookie_dict,id):
base_url = "https://m.weibo.cn/comments/hotflow?id={}&mid={}&max_id_type=0"
next_url = "https://m.weibo.cn/comments/hotflow?id={}&mid={}&max_id={}&max_id_type={}"
page = 1
id_type = 0
comment_count = 0
requests_count = 1
res = requests.get(url=base_url.format(id,id), headers=headers,cookies=cookie_dict)
while True:
print("parse page {}".format(page))
page += 1
try:
data = res.json()["data"]
wdata = []
max_id = data["max_id"]
for c in data["data"]:
comment_count += 1
row = info_parser(c)
wdata.append(info_parser(c))
if c.get("comments", None):
temp = []
for cc in c.get("comments"):
temp.append(info_parser(cc))
wdata.append(info_parser(cc))
comment_count += 1
row["comments"] = temp
print(row)
with open("{}/{}.csv".format(comment_path, id), mode="a+", encoding="utf-8-sig", newline="") as f:
writer = csv.writer(f)
for d in wdata:
writer.writerow([d["wid"],d["time"],d["text"],d["uid"],d["username"],d["following"],d["followed"],d["gender"]])

time.sleep(3)
except:
print(res.text)
id_type += 1
print("评论总数: {}".format(comment_count))

res = requests.get(url=next_url.format(id, id, max_id,id_type), headers=headers,cookies=cookie_dict)
requests_count += 1
if requests_count%50==0:
print(id_type)
print(res.status_code)

 

第七步:主函数

if __name__ == "__main__":
username = "18100000000" # 用户名(注册的手机号)
password = "123456" # 密码
cookie_path = "Cookie.txt" # 保存cookie 的文件名称
id = "4477416430959369" # 爬取微博的 id
WeiboLogin(username, password, cookie_path).login()
with open("{}/{}.csv".format(comment_path, id), mode="w", encoding="utf-8-sig", newline="") as f:
writer = csv.writer(f)
writer.writerow(["wid", "time", "text", "uid", "username", "following", "followed", "gender"])
start_crawl(get_cookies(), id)

 

第八步:获取id

  • 你需要获得想要找的微博id,那么对于小白来说怎么找id呢?
  • 首先找到你想爬的微博,这里以微博故事为例,在浏览器内按下F12,并且点击评论按钮

                                                     

  • 点击‘网络’,找到一条像图中的get请求。查看它的参数,mid就是它的id

 

 

全文代码

为了方便大家拿去练习,以下是上文的全部代码整合!

import time
import base64
import rsa
import binascii
import requests
import re
from PIL import Image
import random
from urllib.parse import quote_plus
import http.cookiejar as cookielib
import csv
import os
comment_path = "comment"
if not os.path.exists(comment_path):
os.mkdir(comment_path)

agent = "mozilla/5.0 (windowS NT 10.0; win64; x64) appLewEbkit/537.36 (KHTML, likE gecko) chrome/71.0.3578.98 safari/537.36"
headers = {"User-Agent": agent}

class WeiboLogin(object):
"""
通过登录 weibo.com 然后跳转到 m.weibo.cn
"""

# 初始化数据
def __init__(self, user, password, cookie_path):
super(WeiboLogin, self).__init__()
self.user = user
self.password = password
self.session = requests.Session()
self.cookie_path = cookie_path
# LWPCookieJar是python中管理cookie的工具,可以将cookie保存到文件,或者在文件中读取cookie数据到程序
self.session.cookies = cookielib.LWPCookieJar(filename=self.cookie_path)
self.index_url = "http://weibo.com/login.php"
self.session.get(self.index_url, headers=headers, timeout=2)
self.postdata = dict()

def get_su(self):
"""
对 email 地址和手机号码 先 javascript 中 encodeURIComponent
对应 Python 3 中的是 urllib.parse.quote_plus
然后在 base64 加密后decode
"""
username_quote = quote_plus(self.user)
username_base64 = base64.b64encode(username_quote.encode("utf-8"))
return username_base64.decode("utf-8")

# 预登陆获得 servertime, nonce, pubkey, rsakv
def get_server_data(self, su):
"""与原来的相比,微博的登录从 v1.4.18 升级到了 v1.4.19
这里使用了 URL 拼接的方式,也可以用 Params 参数传递的方式
"""
pre_url = "http://login.sina.com.cn/sso/prelogin.php?entry=weibo&callback=sinaSSOController.preloginCallBack&su="
pre_url = pre_url + su + "&rsakt=mod&checkpin=1&client=ssologin.js(v1.4.19)&_="
pre_url = pre_url + str(int(time.time() * 1000))
pre_data_res = self.session.get(pre_url, headers=headers)
# print("*"*50)
# print(pre_data_res.text)
# print("*" * 50)
sever_data = eval(pre_data_res.content.decode("utf-8").replace("sinaSSOController.preloginCallBack", ""))

return sever_data

def get_password(self, servertime, nonce, pubkey):
"""对密码进行 RSA 的加密"""
rsaPublickey = int(pubkey, 16)
key = rsa.PublicKey(rsaPublickey, 65537) # 创建公钥
message = str(servertime) + "	" + str(nonce) + "
" + str(self.password) # 拼接明文js加密文件中得到
message = message.encode("utf-8")
passwd = rsa.encrypt(message, key) # 加密
passwd = binascii.b2a_hex(passwd) # 将加密信息转换为16进制。
return passwd

def get_cha(self, pcid):
"""获取验证码,并且用PIL打开,
1. 如果本机安装了图片查看软件,也可以用 os.subprocess 的打开验证码
2. 可以改写此函数接入打码平台。
"""
cha_url = "https://login.sina.com.cn/cgi/pin.php?r="
cha_url = cha_url + str(int(random.random() * 100000000)) + "&s=0&p="
cha_url = cha_url + pcid
cha_page = self.session.get(cha_url, headers=headers)
with open("cha.jpg", "wb") as f:
f.write(cha_page.content)
f.close()
try:
im = Image.open("cha.jpg")
im.show()
im.close()
except Exception as e:
print(u"请到当前目录下,找到验证码后输入")

def pre_login(self):
# su 是加密后的用户名
su = self.get_su()
sever_data = self.get_server_data(su)
servertime = sever_data["servertime"]
nonce = sever_data["nonce"]
rsakv = sever_data["rsakv"]
pubkey = sever_data["pubkey"]
showpin = sever_data["showpin"] # 这个参数的意义待探索
password_secret = self.get_password(servertime, nonce, pubkey)

self.postdata = {
"entry": "weibo",
"gateway": "1",
"from": "",
"savestate": "7",
"useticket": "1",
"pagerefer": "https://passport.weibo.com",
"vsnf": "1",
"su": su,
"service": "miniblog",
"servertime": servertime,
"nonce": nonce,
"pwencode": "rsa2",
"rsakv": rsakv,
"sp": password_secret,
"sr": "1366*768",
"encoding": "UTF-8",
"prelt": "115",
"cdult": "38",
"url": "http://weibo.com/ajaxlogin.php?framelogin=1&callback=parent.sinaSSOController.feedBackUrlCallBack",
"returntype": "TEXT" # 这里是 TEXT 和 META 选择,具体含义待探索
}
return sever_data

def login(self):
# 先不输入验证码登录测试
try:
sever_data = self.pre_login()
login_url = "https://login.sina.com.cn/sso/login.php?client=ssologin.js(v1.4.19)&_"
login_url = login_url + str(time.time() * 1000)
login_page = self.session.post(login_url, data=self.postdata, headers=headers)
ticket_js = login_page.json()
ticket = ticket_js["ticket"]
except Exception as e:
sever_data = self.pre_login()
login_url = "https://login.sina.com.cn/sso/login.php?client=ssologin.js(v1.4.19)&_"
login_url = login_url + str(time.time() * 1000)
pcid = sever_data["pcid"]
self.get_cha(pcid)
self.postdata["door"] = input(u"请输入验证码")
login_page = self.session.post(login_url, data=self.postdata, headers=headers)
ticket_js = login_page.json()
ticket = ticket_js["ticket"]
# 以下内容是 处理登录跳转链接
save_pa = r"==-(d+)-"
ssosavestate = int(re.findall(save_pa, ticket)[0]) + 3600 * 7
jump_ticket_params = {
"callback": "sinaSSOController.callbackLoginStatus",
"ticket": ticket,
"ssosavestate": str(ssosavestate),
"client": "ssologin.js(v1.4.19)",
"_": str(time.time() * 1000),
}
jump_url = "https://passport.weibo.com/wbsso/login"
jump_headers = {
"Host": "passport.weibo.com",
"Referer": "https://weibo.com/",
"User-Agent": headers["User-Agent"]
}
jump_login = self.session.get(jump_url, params=jump_ticket_params, headers=jump_headers)
uuid = jump_login.text

uuid_pa = r""uniqueid":"(.*?)""
uuid_res = re.findall(uuid_pa, uuid, re.S)[0]
web_weibo_url = "http://weibo.com/%s/profile?topnav=1&wvr=6&is_all=1" % uuid_res
weibo_page = self.session.get(web_weibo_url, headers=headers)

# print(weibo_page.content.decode("utf-8")

Mheaders = {
"Host": "login.sina.com.cn",
"User-Agent": agent
}

# m.weibo.cn 登录的 url 拼接
_rand = str(time.time())
mParams = {
"url": "https://m.weibo.cn/",
"_rand": _rand,
"gateway": "1",
"service": "sinawap",
"entry": "sinawap",
"useticket": "1",
"returntype": "META",
"sudaref": "",
"_client_version": "0.6.26",
}
murl = "https://login.sina.com.cn/sso/login.php"
mhtml = self.session.get(murl, params=mParams, headers=Mheaders)
mhtml.encoding = mhtml.apparent_encoding
mpa = r"replace((.*?));"
mres = re.findall(mpa, mhtml.text)

# 关键的跳转步骤,这里不出问题,基本就成功了。
Mheaders["Host"] = "passport.weibo.cn"
self.session.get(eval(mres[0]), headers=Mheaders)
mlogin = self.session.get(eval(mres[0]), headers=Mheaders)
# print(mlogin.status_code)
# 进过几次 页面跳转后,m.weibo.cn 登录成功,下次测试是否登录成功
Mheaders["Host"] = "m.weibo.cn"
Set_url = "https://m.weibo.cn"
pro = self.session.get(Set_url, headers=Mheaders)
pa_login = r"isLogin":true,"
login_res = re.findall(pa_login, pro.text)
# print(login_res)

# 可以通过 session.cookies 对 cookies 进行下一步相关操作
self.session.cookies.save()
# print("*"*50)
# print(self.cookie_path)

def get_cookies():
# 加载cookie
cookies = cookielib.LWPCookieJar("Cookie.txt")
cookies.load(ignore_discard=True, ignore_expires=True)
# 将cookie转换成字典
cookie_dict = requests.utils.dict_from_cookiejar(cookies)
return cookie_dict

def info_parser(data):
id,time,text = data["id"],data["created_at"],data["text"]
user = data["user"]
uid,username,following,followed,gender = 
user["id"],user["screen_name"],user["follow_count"],user["followers_count"],user["gender"]
return {
"wid":id,
"time":time,
"text":text,
"uid":uid,
"username":username,
"following":following,
"followed":followed,
"gender":gender
}

def start_crawl(cookie_dict,id):
base_url = "https://m.weibo.cn/comments/hotflow?id={}&mid={}&max_id_type=0"
next_url = "https://m.weibo.cn/comments/hotflow?id={}&mid={}&max_id={}&max_id_type={}"
page = 1
id_type = 0
comment_count = 0
requests_count = 1
res = requests.get(url=base_url.format(id,id), headers=headers,cookies=cookie_dict)
while True:
print("parse page {}".format(page))
page += 1
try:
data = res.json()["data"]
wdata = []
max_id = data["max_id"]
for c in data["data"]:
comment_count += 1
row = info_parser(c)
wdata.append(info_parser(c))
if c.get("comments", None):
temp = []
for cc in c.get("comments"):
temp.append(info_parser(cc))
wdata.append(info_parser(cc))
comment_count += 1
row["comments"] = temp
print(row)
with open("{}/{}.csv".format(comment_path, id), mode="a+", encoding="utf-8-sig", newline="") as f:
writer = csv.writer(f)
for d in wdata:
writer.writerow([d["wid"],d["time"],d["text"],d["uid"],d["username"],d["following"],d["followed"],d["gender"]])

time.sleep(3)
except:
print(res.text)
id_type += 1
print("评论总数: {}".format(comment_count))

res = requests.get(url=next_url.format(id, id, max_id,id_type), headers=headers,cookies=cookie_dict)
requests_count += 1
if requests_count%50==0:
print(id_type)
print(res.status_code)

if __name__ == "__main__":
username ="00000000000" # 用户名(注册的手机号)
password = "123456" # 密码
cookie_path = "Cookie.txt" # 保存cookie 的文件名称
id = "4477416430959369" # 爬取微博的 id
WeiboLogin(username, password, cookie_path).login()
with open("{}/{}.csv".format(comment_path, id), mode="w", encoding="utf-8-sig", newline="") as f:
writer = csv.writer(f)
writer.writerow(["wid", "time", "text", "uid", "username", "following", "followed", "gender"])
start_crawl(get_cookies(), id)